NEW ORLEANS The United States has record supplies of natural gas and plenty of reasons to promote natural-gas powered cars, but so far consumers, manufacturers and fuel suppliers havent shown much interest.
Now, a major natural-gas developers plans to vastly increase the number of truck stops that offer liquid natural gas could help boost its use in the vehicles that currently burn the most of the fuel, while promoting its availability to a wider market.
Lots of natural gas is available, if U.S. drivers decide to use it. In just a few years, domestic natural-gas supplies have increased by trillions of cubic feet through shale finds, boosting the supply to the point where plans are in place to export part of the overflow.
The growth of natural-gas vehicles in the United States so far has been dominated by fleets of buses, taxis and garbage haulers.
Only one natural-gas car is commercially produced in the country: the Honda Civic GX, recently renamed the NG. It has sold a grand total of about 13,000 in 13 years of production.
The reasons for the lackluster sales of natural-gas cars are many: the fuel is available at only a handful of public stations, tethering the vehicles within a certain distance of a fuel source.
And even though the pump price of natural gas can run $1 to $2 less per gallon equivalent than gasoline, natural-gas vehicles carry a higher sticker price.
The focus for the natural-gas vehicle industry in the U.S. has been the fuel-guzzlers: especially semitrailer rigs.
Rich Kolodziej, president of the trade association NGV America, says that makes sense in terms of overall fuel usage. He said a driver who puts 12,000 miles a year on a car at 25 miles to the gallon will use about 500 gallons of gasoline annually. But a diesel-driven 18-wheeler can easily go 120,000 miles a year. At six miles per gallon, that comes to 20,000 gallons.
If youre trying to reduce foreign imports of oil, youre trying to reduce greenhouse gases and emissions in urban areas, where do you put your effort? You put it on the big vehicles, Kolodziej said.
For reasons of tank space, liquid natural gas is used by commercial trucks, while compressed natural gas is the fuel of choice for cars.
According to the international trade association NGV Global, there are 12.7 million natural-gas vehicles in the world, including 6.8 million in the Asia-Pacific rim, 4.2 million in Latin America, 1.4 million in Europe, and 122,000 in Africa.
The U.S. has just 112,000 of them less than 1 percent of the global total, and less than a tenth of 1 percent of the 253.7 million vehicles in the U.S.
Most of them are in fleets.
The big reason that they work well for fleets and not the average person on the street is that most fleet vehicles are used for relatively short trips, said John ODell, senior editor of Edmunds.com, which follows the vehicle industry. They go back to the barn in the evening where they have a refueling station that can handle them.
There is not a really good fueling system in this country, ODell added. You have to have the infrastructure out there to convince people to buy natural-gas cars.
Kolodziej said that there are about 180,000 gasoline stations and only about 1,000 locations to fill up with natural gas.
But that may be changing.
The T. Boone Pickens-backed Clean Energy Fuels Corp. is embarking on a major expansion of natural-gas fueling and plans to add liquefied natural-gas pumps at 150 truck stops nationwide over the next 24 to 36 months.
Weve mapped out a strategy to cover every major interstate in the domestic United States, said Clean Energy Fuels chief marketing officer James Harger.
Clean Energy currently provides fueling services for more than 500 fleets consisting of about 22,000 vehicles, such as transit buses, taxis, shuttle buses, school buses, municipal cars and garbage trucks, Harger said.
Still, Clean Energy has its eyes firmly focused on the long-haul trucking industry with its truck stop expansion plan.
Harger and other natural-gas proponents are putting stock in pending congressional legislation that would provide tax credits to cover 80 percent of the cost difference between a liquid natural gas semitrailer and the diesel variety. Harger said the five-year bill probably would cost about $1 billion a year. The U.S. spends more than $1 billion a day on foreign oil.
This will help jump-start this industry, he said.
C.R. England, a major refrigerated carrier, recently started using five liquid natural gas-fired rigs in southern California. The company has about 4,000 diesel semitrailers, said Tracy Brown, a company operating director. He said the region was chosen because of the ready availability of dedicated Clean Energy refueling depots. The rigs are being used in the Los Angeles region and on a route to and from Las Vegas, Brown said.
Although he would not reveal what Salt Lake City-based C.R. England paid for the liquid natural-gas semitrailers, he said fuel cost savings could lead to overall savings within a year or two. Depending on diesel prices, the company saves $1.50 to $2 per gallon equivalent on liquid natural gas, he said. At the same time, fuel usage is about the same in equivalent diesel gallons.
They are much cleaner, they are much quieter, Brown said of the new tractors. We havent noticed any power reduction from the diesel engines. Were very pleased with these.