GIR SANCTUARY, India A peacock shrieks. A monkey scrambles higher into the fire-colored canopy of a kesudo tree. And an Asiatic lion one of the last few hundred in the wild pads across the dusty earth of a west Indian sanctuary that is its only refuge from the modern world.
Within the guarded confines of this dry forest in Gujarat state, the lions have been rescued from near-extinction. A century ago, fewer than 50 remained. Today, more than 400 fill the park and sometimes wander into surrounding villages and farmland.
But the lions precarious return is in jeopardy. Experts warn their growing numbers could be their undoing. Crowded together, they are more vulnerable to disease and natural disaster. There is little new territory for young males to claim, increasing chances for inbreeding, territorial conflict or males killing the young.
Conservationists agree these lions need a second home fast, and far from Gir. Government-backed experts in the 1990s settled on a rugged and hilly sanctuary called Kuno, where lions historically roamed with tigers in the neighboring state of Madhya Pradesh. Millions were spent preparing the park. But Gujarat rejected the plan. And no lions were sent.
Now, the uncertain fate of the Asiatic lions once dominant in forests from Morocco and Greece across the Middle East to eastern India rests in the hands of bureaucrats, and the case has reached the Supreme Court.
We are the only ones who have lions. We have managed without interference until now, Gujarats environment secretary, S.K. Nanda, said proudly from behind an enormous desk in an office complex decorated with lion posters reading: Gujarats pride; Worlds envy.
Can we humans be arbiters of where these lions should live? Should we move the mountains and the rivers, too? Nanda said. If the lions want to move, let them move on their own.
The subject of saving lions is an emotional one in India. The lion also holds iconic status in religions and cultures. The multi-armed Hindu warrior goddess Durga is traditionally shown with a lion as her mount. Four lions make the national emblem symbolizing power, courage, pride and confidence. Even the common Sikh name Singh, shared by the current prime minister, means lion in several languages.
The Asiatic lions, a subspecies, are nearly as large as their African cousins, though the males manes are less fluffy and their tails have larger tufts.
By the 20th century, they had nearly been wiped out by trophy hunters. The last Asiatic lion outside Gujarat was gunned down in Iran in 1942.
Within India, hundreds of thousands of lions, tigers, leopards and wolves were killed during decades of frenzied hunting, encouraged by British colonials. Three years after independence, the countrys Asiatic cheetahs were extinct.
But the lions in Gujarat got a reprieve. A princely ruler banned hunting of the few dozen lions left in 1901.
The state created Gir Sanctuary over more than 540 square miles, relocating all but a few hundred buffalo herdsmen who lived peaceably with the predators, mainly by giving them wide berth.
The sanctuary became a model in conservation, with constant patrols against poachers and cultivated grasslands for the lions prey: spotted deer and blue-hued antelope. A veterinary hospital was built. The lions thrived.
Tourists from Indias newly minted middle class now flock to the park, riding open-topped jeeps to see lions lazing under trees or teaching their butterfly-chasing young to stalk small prey.
A few dozen trackers keep count of the animals and fill artificial water holes.
Not everyone gets a job like this, said Raju Vajadiya, idly swinging a stick, the only defense he and his colleagues usually have or need. It is a godly thing to give a lion water on a hot day.
Protecting the lions has been popular with locals, who consider the predators docile when not harassed. Farmers welcome them in their fields. Newly married couples visit them for good luck. Families break park rules to picnic by Girs streams, unaware or unconcerned that they are water sources for the big cats.
The lion is like a god to us, peanut farmer Sadik Hasein Chotiyara said. If the lion attacks, its because that person made a mistake.
At the same time, locals in general are more open to sharing the lions with other states than Gujarats leaders are.
Gujarat officials insist lion attacks on humans dont happen. Nonsense, say scientists and residents.
Research indicates confrontations are increasing, as the growing cat population has pushed one in four lions into new mini-sanctuaries they get to by riverbeds that snake through farms and villages.
Droughts that kill prey can make matters worse. After a drought in the 1980s, there were 120 lion confrontations in 1989-91 killing 21 people five taken as lion food, said biologist Ravi Chellam.
Most of the estimated 15 lion attacks each year happen outside the park, where people are less lion-savvy, scientists say. In April, a lion killed a 35-year-old man who was reportedly pelting it with stones.
Environmentalists say the need for the central government to protect species is not declining but rising as Indias population and economy soar.
Conservation in India is not about managing animals anymore, said Divyabhanusinh Chavda of the World Wildlife Fund in India.
Its about managing people.